"Marquis" or "Marquess"
The Oxford dictionaries give "marquis" as the preferred spelling. Modern records of the House of Lords and a large majority of web sites use "marquess". (Therefore, the viewer should try both spellings when using a search engine.) Members of our extended families who held this title used both spellings.55, 65
Born 1633; died 1696 or 169779.
William, the 20th Baron, marks a turning point in the genetic and cultural heritage of the Barons of Kerry. Since the earlier Barons took Irish wives, William, the 20th Baron, had a genetic heritage very little different from that of the average Irishman living in Kerry (about 50% Celtic, 45% Norse, and 5% misc.). William, however, had an English wife. Since the subsequent Barons of Kerry were absentee landlords who lived in England, most of them also married English women. Henry, the Baron of Kerry during the genocide of the 1840's, was probably 15/16 English.
William, the 20th Baron, fought on the English side at the Battle of the Boyne (1 Jul 1690) and in France. 215
In Ref. 39, pp. 212-213, I found the following entry:
A list of Claims on Lands Forfeited in the County Kerry in the Revolution of 1688, extracted from a work entitled - "A Book of Claims as they were entered with the trustees at Chichester House, Dublin, on or before the 10th of August 1700. Printed at Dublin 1701." No. 354, Lord Kerry claims a Chief Rent in fee on the lands of Ballinorig, Ballymac Andrew and others, by Deeds of Lease and Release dated 10th of August 1666, Forfeiting Proprietor, James FitzMaurice.
Circa 1665, William (20th Baron) married Constance (d. 12 Oct 1685), daughter of William Long and had (with two daughters) three sons79:
1. Thomas FitzMaurice, 21st Baron of Kerry and 1st Earl of Kerry (b. 1668).
2. William of Gallane, Co. Kerry, Col. in the Army, who married Deborah, daughter of Sir John Brookes, Bt., and had three children:
3. James (Capt.), of Kilmihill, who married Catherine, daughter and heiress of William Harman, of Dublin, and had two children:
Born 1668. Died 16 Mar 1741 at Lixnaw. Interment 21 Mar 1741 at Killtomy.
Thomas, the 21st Baron of Kerry, was created Viscount Clanmaurice in 1722225 and the 1st Earl of Kerry (peerage of Ireland)218 from 17 Jan 1722.
On 14 Jan 1692, Thomas (1st Earl of Kerry) married Anne Petty (daughter of Sir William Petty) and had at least two sons:
FitzMaurice, 2nd Earl of Kerry
(b. 1694; d. 4 Apr 1747 in Lixnaw)
Son of Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry.
William became a Privy Councilor, a Colonel of Coldstream Guards (English army), Gov. of Ross Castle, and "Custos Rotulorum" of Co. Kerry.218
On 29 Jun 1738, William (2nd Earl from 1842) married Gertrude Lambert and had a son, Francis Thomas FitzMaurice (1740 — 1818), 3rd Earl of Kerry.
Born 9 Sep 1740.
Son of William FitzMaurice, 2nd Earl of Kerry.
Francis was educated by the Chancellor of Ireland.215
On 18 Mar 1768, Francis (3rd Earl) married Anastasia Daly. Frances (3rd Earl from 1747) sold all the Kerry Estates and d.s.p.
Apparently the title "Earl of Shelburne" was also held by John's uncle, Henry Petty, but became extinct when he died in 1751. The title was recreated for John225 on 26 Jun 1753.
Born c. 1700; died in May 1761.
Son of Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry.
John married his first cousin, Mary FitzMaurice, and had at least two sons:
Born 2 May 1737 in Dublin, Ireland.
Son of John Petty-FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Shelburne.
Prime Minister of England (Jul 1782-Apr 1783)
William was educated privately and at Christ Church, Oxford (1755-1757).
He served in the army during the Seven Years' War (which lasted from 1756 to 1763 and included the "French and Indian War" in North America).
In 1763, William became first lord of trade in the Grenville ministry but resigned within a few months. In 1766, he served as secretary of state for the southern department under William Pitt. He resigned in 1768. In 1782, he became home secretary under Lord Rockingham and was appointed prime minister in July 1782 upon the death of Rockingham. He played a key role in negotiating a peace treaty with France and the United States of America, thereby bringing an end to the American Revolution. The final terms relating to the United States of America were similar to those that William had proposed from the beginning of the Revolution. More details can be found in Ref. 240.
William was defeated in 1783. He was created Marquis of Lansdowne in 1784 and, thereafter, was no longer active in political affairs.
Boston, Massachusetts, and seven nearby communities have each named one of their streets "Lansdowne" to memorialize the 1st Marquis of Lansdowne because of his attitude toward the American colonies during the American Revolution. He consistently opposed the policies of George III towards the colonies in North America. He paid a political price for taking this position, which is still characterized in some English texts as "arrogance and aloofness".
The Lansdowne Portrait
Ownership of the portrait eventually passed to Lord Harry Dalmeny whose family had owned the painting since c.1900. In 2001, he said that he planned to sell the portrait.
On March 14th, the Las Vegas-based Donald W. Reynolds Foundation donated $30 million to provide $20 million for the purchase of the painting, $4 million to pay for a permanent installation for the "Lansdowne" at the portrait gallery, and $6 million to finance a tour of the Lansdowne portrait around the United States. The portrait had been on anonymous loan to the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution since 1968. It is now owned by the National Portrait Gallery.229
1. William Petty-FitzMaurice
In London, on 19 Jul 1779, William (1st Marquis) married Louisa FitzPatrick (1755--London 7 Aug 1789) at St. George's, Bloombury. They had one child:
1. Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (2 Jul 1780--31 Jan 1863), 3rd Marquis of Lansdowne (from 1809).
Related web sites:
(6 Dec 1765--London 15 Nov 1809)
Son of William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne.
On 27 May 1805, John (2nd Marquis) married Maria Arabella at 33 Mount Street, Hanover Square, London.
John (2nd Marquis) d. s. p.
Born 2 Jul 1780 in Shelburne House, Berkeley Square, London
Son of William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne.
Henry was Home Secretary from 16 Jul 1827 to 26 Jan 1828.
Henry inherited the title Baron and Earl of Kerry and Viscount Clanmaurice from Francis (3rd Earl of Kerry). He inherited from his father (1st Marquis of Lansdowne) the titles Marquis of Lansdowne, Earl Wycombe, Earl of Shelburne, Viscount Calne and Calstone, Lord Wycombe, Baron Chippinw Wycombe, Viscount Fitzmaurice, and Baron Dunkeron215.
Henry (3rd Marquis) was the Earl of Kerry during the genocide in Ireland in the 1840s.
On 30 Mar 1808, Henry (3rd Marquis) married Louisa Emma Fox-Strangways (27 Jun 1785--Bowood Park 3 Apr 1851), Principal Lady of the Bedchamber, in Melbury and had three children:
Related genealogical sites:
Part of the penalty for being a Catholic in Ireland during the early 19th Century was the status of impoverished tenant farmer. The entire useful production of the farm was needed to pay the rent. The Catholics were required to subsist primarily on the potatoes that they raised on rocky soil good for nothing else. When the potato blight arrived in the 1840's and destroyed the potato crop, approximately one million Irish Catholics died of starvation and related diseases.64
In every year of the 1840's, the amount of food raised in Ireland was more than enough to feed every inhabitant of the country.64 The food, however, was exported under guard by British troops. Many a Catholic was murdered by the English when he tried to prevent the export of food from a country of starving people to England and the world market. Although some landowners tried to alleviate the misery of their tenants, neither the monarch, nor the prime minister, nor any significant group in the Government, sought to implement a compassionate global solution such as would be put in place today in equivalent circumstances. The result was passive genocide.
Son of Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquis of Lansdowne.
Born 7 Jan 1816 at Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, London.
Henry (4th Marquis) was a Member of the House of Lords, Lord of the Treasury (1847), Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1856 -- 58), and a Member of the Privy Council.215
Investiture as Knight of the Garter in 1864.
On 18 Aug 1840, in Wilton,Wiltshire, Henry (4th Marquis) married Lady Georgiana Herbert (b. 3 Aug 1817 in Wilton; d. 28 Feb 1841 in Wilton).
On 1 Nov 1843, at the British Embassy in Vienna, Henry (4th Marquis) married Emily Jane Mercer Elphinstone de Flahault, 6th Baroness Nairne (b. 16 May 1819 in Edinburgh; d. 26 Jun 1895 at Meiklour House). Emily was the grand daughter of Prince Tallyrand and the daughter of the Comte de Flahault. Emily and Henry had at least two children:
Born 14 Jan 1845. Died 3 Jun 1927 at Newtown Anner, Tipperary.
Son of Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, 4th Marquis of Lansdowne.
Henry (5th Marquis) was a member of the House of
Investiture as Knight of the Garter in 1895.
On 8 Nov 1869, in Westminster Abbey, London, England, Henry (5th Marquis) married Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton (b. 17 Dec 1850 in London; d. 21 Oct 1932 in London). They had four children:
(14 Jan 1872—5 Mar 1936)
Son of 5th Marquis of Lansdowne.
Henry (6th Marquis) was a Member of the House of Lords, a Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire (1908—18), and a Lt. Col. in the English army. He served during the Boer War and World War I.215
On 16 Feb 1904, Henry (6th Marquis) married Elizabeth Caroline
Hope (4 Mar 1885—25 Mar 1964). They had at least five children:
(b. 9 Jan 1917; kia 20 Aug 1944 in Italy)
Son of 6th Marquis of Lansdowne.
Charles (7th Marquis) was a member of the House of Lords. He served as a Captain in the English army during World War II. In 1944, Charles was killed in action in Italy. He died unmarried.215
(27 Nov 1912 — 12 Aug 1997 ?)
Son of Charles George Francis Mercer Nairne, who was the son of 5th Marquis of Lansdowne.
On 18 Mar 1938, George (8th Marquis) married Barbara Chase (d. 17 Feb 1965), the daughter of Harold Stuart Chase of Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.218 They had four children:
In 1969, George (8th Marquis) married 2ndly the Hon. Selina Polly Dawson Eccles (b. 18 Jan 1937), daughter of the 1st Viscount Eccles and previously the wife of Robin Andrew Duthac Carnegie. George and Selina were divorced in 1978.
On 15 Oct 1978, George (8th Marquis)
On 12 Jul 1995, George (8th Marquis)
Charles Maurice Mercer Nairne
(b. 21 Feb 1941)
Son of 8th Marquis of Lansdowne.
On 9 Oct 1965, Charles married Lady Frances Helen Mary Eliot (b. 6 Mar 1943), daughter of 9th Earl of St. Germans. They were divorced in 1987. They had four children:
In 1987, Charles married secondly Fiona Mary Merritt